The Christian Quarter
The reason why Christians saw Jerusalem as their holy city wasn’t because it was the city where Jesus lived, but rather, being destroyed, it was proof to them that Jesus was the Messiah. He had prophesied on the Mt. of Olives that Jerusalem would be destroyed and now the prophecy was fulfilled (Matthew 23:36-39, Luke 23:28).
The site of the original city from the time of the 2nd temple is at Mt. Zion, where David’s Tomb is, the City of David and where the Jewish Quarter stands today. The modern day area of the Christian Quarter is the site of a city built by Hadrian in 132 CE and was known as Aelia Capitolina, a Pagan city built to commemorate the victory of Jupiter over the Jewish God.
The fact that Aelia Capitolina stood in all its glory and Jerusalem lay in ruins was considered by the Pagan Romans, the Christians and later the Moslems as proof that God had rejected the Jewish People and had chosen another nation instead of them.
The Roman emperor Constantine the Great built the Church of the Holy Sepulchre, and it forms the center of the Christian Quarter. Originally this was a beautiful Roman temple dedicated to Aphrodite, the Roman goddess of love. The Romans must have thought the Jews very strange because they hated Aphrodite. Naturally they didn’t hate Aphrodite because she wasn’t appealing or attractive, but she simply contravened the first 3 of the 10 commandments (to worship only God, not to have any other gods and not to make any graven images). Constantine built the church of Jesus in place of Aphrodite’s temple in the hope that the Jews would prefer to worship Jesus rather than Aphrodite. After all, he was Jewish.